بررسی تحولی توانایی حل مسأله در دانش‌آموزان مقطع ابتدایی با استفاده از برج هانوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی عمومی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه روان شناسی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه روانشناسی کودکان استثنائی، دانشگاه تهران

10.22098/jsp.2019.841

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی فرآیند رشد شناختی کودکان 7 تا 12 سال در حل مسأله با استفاده از آزمون برج هانوی بود. روش پژوهش حاضر غیرآزمایشی و از نوع طرح‌های عاملی سه‌راهه بود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل کلیه دانش‌آموزان مقطع ابتدایی (اول تا ششم) استان قم در سال تحصیلی 94- 1395 بود. تعداد 180 نفر (15 دختر و 15 پسر در هر پایه) به‌روش تصادفی نظام‌مند انتخاب شدند. آنان پس از یادگیری، اقدام به انجام برج هانوی 3 دیسک و 4 دیسک نمودند و زمان و تعداد حرکت آنان ثبت شد. به‌منظور اطمینان از صحت یافته‌ها در سال 1395 آزمون پیگیری به‌عمل آمد. برای تحلیل داده‌های جمع‌آوری شده از روش اندازه‌گیری مکرر (طرح دو بین-یک درون) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که ابعاد مختلف رشد توان حل مسأله در کودکان دارای رشد خطی است و توان حل مسأله در دختران و پسران افزایش داشت.به این معنا که توان حل مسأله در دختران و پسران با افزایش سن افزایش می‌یابد و حاکی از تکامل و بلوغ رشد عصبی- مغزی در آنان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developmental analysis of problem-solving in elementary school students using the tower of Hanoi

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z Husseini 1
  • J Hatami 2
  • F Nosrati 3
1 MA in Psychology, Tehran University
2 Associate Professor of Psychology, Tehran University
3 Assistant Professor of Exceptional Child Psychology
چکیده [English]

Problem-solving has an important and influential impact on all stages of life including education and social life. Using the tower of Hanoi, the present research tended to investigate the developmental cognitive processes of problem-solving in children aged 7-12. The study has a non-experimental design using a three-way ANOVA. The population consisted of all the primary school students (1st grade to 6th grade) in Qom Province in 1394-1395 (2016-2017). 180 students (15 girls and 15 boys in each grade) were selected randomly through stratified sampling. After learning how to solve the tower of Hanoi, they solved the 3-disk and the 4-disk tower of Hanoi. The number of movements and the solving time were recorded. To ensure the reliability of the collected data, a follow-up research was performed in 1395. The data were analyzed by repeated measurement (two inter–one intra). The obtained results revealed an overall linear cognitive and problem-solving development in children. It was also revealed that there were some differences in girls and boys when they tried to solve problems. Problem-solving skills in both girls and boys developed as the age increased which can be related to the nervous system development and maturity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Problem-solving
  • cognitive development
  • the tower of Hanoi
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