تأثیر توجه، بازیابی و تولید در یادگیری و به یادسپاری واژگان زبان انگلیسی در میان دانش‌آموزان دبیرستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زبان انگلیسی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

10.22098/jsp.2020.910

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی فرآیندهای روان­شناختی توجه، بازیابی و تولید و مقایسه اثربخشی آن­ها در فرآیند یادگیری و حفظ واژگان در دانش آموزان انجام شد. روش پژوهش، آزمایشی از نوع طرح پیش آزمون-پس آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. 90 دانش آموز سطح متوسط به طور تصادفی در سه گروه به نام‌های توجه از طریق تقویت درونداد زبانی (30 نفر)، تقویت درونداد زبانی به علاوه مرور مبتنی بر درونداد زبانی (30 نفر) و تقویت درونداد زبانی به علاوه مرور مبتنی بر برونداد زبانی (30 نفر) قرار گرفتند. کلمات هدف در متن­های کتاب تمرکز بر واژگان 2: تسلط بر لیست کلمات آکادمیک (اشمیت، اشمیت و من، 2011) گنجانده شده بودند. دانش واژگان گروه­های آزمایش از طریق تست پیش آزمون با استفاده از مقیاس دانش واژگان (VKS) مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. یک هفته پس از آخرین جلسه یادگیری، پس آزمون فوری و پس از دو هفته، پس آزمون تأخیری اجرا شد. داده­های به­دست آمده با استفاده از روش های آماری تحلیل واریانس فریدمن، آزمون­های رتبه‌ای علامت­دار ویلکاکسون و آزمون­های کروسکال-والیس مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که توجه از طریق تقویت درونداد زبانی هیچ تأثیر معناداری در یادگیری و حفظ واژگان ندارد. همچنین مشخص شد که هر دو نوع مرور مبتنی بر درونداد و برونداد زبانی تأثیر مثبت در یادگیری واژگان و حفظ آن­ها دارد؛ ولی تأثیر آن­ها تفاوت معناداری با همدیگر نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of noticing, retrieval, and generation on vocabulary learning and retention among high School students

نویسندگان [English]

  • S.N Mousavi
  • N Ghafoori
  • M Saeidi
Department of English Language, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study is an attempt to examine the psychological processes of noticing, retrieval, and generation and their possible contribution to the process of vocabulary learning and retention among intermediate students. The research method was experimental. Ninety intermediate students were randomly assigned to three groups, namely Noticing through Input enhancement (n=30), Input Enhancement plus Input-Based Reviewing (n=30), and Input Enhancement plus Output-Based Reviewing (n=30). The target Academic Words were contextualized in Focus on Vocabulary 2: Mastering the Academic Word List (Schmitt, Schmitt, & Mann, 2011). A pretest composed of the VKS items was administered to the participants. The first group encountered the target words that have been already highlighted to absorb their attention. Encountering the already highlighted words, the second group reviewed the words through researcher-made word cards. The third group, besides encountering the already highlighted words, reviewed the words through paraphrasing the sentences including the target words. One week after the last treatment session, an immediate posttest, and after two weeks, a delayed posttest were administered. Based on the results of Friedman’s ANOVAs, subsequent Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests, and Kruskal Wallis Tests, it was revealed that noticing without any intervention has no significant effect on vocabulary learning and retention. It was also found that both types of input-based and output-based reviewing have positive effect on vocabulary learning and retention and their effects are not significantly different.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vocabulary learning and retention
  • noticing
  • retrieval
  • generation
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