The efficacy of empathy and anger management training based on cognitive-behavioral approach on adjustment in children with oppositional defiant disorder

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student in Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili

2 Professor in Psychology, University of Guilan

3 Professor in Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili


The aim of this research was studied effectiveness and comparing empathy and anger management training based on cognitive-behavioral approach on adjustment in children with oppositional defiant disorder. The method of research is experimental and research design is pretest- posttest with multi groups. The statistical population consisted of all boy students of seventh and eighth grades with oppositional defiant disorder in 2014-2015 academic years in Sari who among them the sample consisted of 72 students were selected and were assigned in 4 groups (2 experimental groups and 2 control groups). For data collecting were used from oppositional defiant disorder rating scale for children, the structured clinical interview, and students' adjustment questionnaire. For experimental groups, empathy training and anger management training was executed at 8 weekly sessions in 60 minutes whereas control groups have any training.The results of multivariate covariance showed empathy training and anger management training can improve general adjustment, educational adjustment and emotional adjustment in children with oppositional defiant disorder (P<0.00) and the effectiveness of the trainings according to eta squared is 49 percent. There was no significant difference between efficacy ​​of empathy training and anger management training on adjustment and it's components in children with oppositional defiant disorder. Therefore, attention to the efficacy of empathy training and anger management training on variables related to students' adjustment with oppositional defiant disorder havespecial importance.


ابوالمعالی الحسینی، خدیجه. (1389). نظریه­های جرم­شناسی و بزهکاری (با تأکید بر شناخت اجتماعی). تهران: ارجمند.
استکی آزاد، نسیم؛ امیری، شعله و مولوی، حسین. (1390). مقایسه‌ی منزلت اجتماعی کودکان پسر مبتلا به اختلالات رفتار ایذایی و بهنجار در مقطع ابتدایی. پژوهش­های روان­شناختی اجتماعی، 1 (1)، 15-1.
بیرامی، منصور؛ و عبادی آسایش، معصومه. (1388). مقایسه میزان اختلال نافرمانی مقابله‌ای فرزندان با توجه به شیوه­های فرزندپروری مادران. زن و مطالعات خانواده، 1 (4)، 62-49.
خیریه، منصوره؛ شعیری، محمدرضا؛ آزاد فلاح، پرویز؛ و رسول­زاده طباطبایی، کاظم. (1388). اثربخشی روش آموزش فرزندپروری مثبت بر کودکان مبتلا به اختلال نافرمانی مقابلهای، مجله علوم رفتاری، 3 (1)، 58-53.
عباسی، مسلم. (1392). بررسی اثربخشی آموزش­های پذیرش و تعهد و  تنظیم هیجان بر بهزیستی روانی- اجتماعی، سازگاری، و رفتارهای پرخطر دانش‌آموزان دارای اختلال ریاضی. پایاننامه دکتری منتشر نشده، دانشکده‌ی علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی.
فرامرزی، سالار؛ عابدی، احمد؛ و قنبری، آمنه. (1391). تأثیر آموزش الگوی ارتباطی مادران بر کاهش نشانگان اختلال نافرمانی مقابله‌ای فرزندان. مجله پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز، 34 (2)، 96-90.
نویدی، احد. (1387). تأثیر آموزش مدیریت خشم بر مهارتهای سازگاری پسران دوره متوسطه شهر تهران. مجله روانپزشکی و روانشناسی بالینی ایران، 41 (4)، 403-394.
Abbasi, M. (2013). The efficacy of acceptance and commitment training and emotion regulation training on psycho-social wellbeing, adjustment, and high risk behaviors students with dyscalculia. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Moohaghegh Ardabili. (Persian).
Abolmaali Alhosseini, Kh. (2010). Criminology Theories and Delicacy (with emphasis of social cognition). Tehran: Arjmand. (Persian).
American Psychiatry Association, Text Revision. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorder (5th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Birami, M. & Ebadi Asayesh, M. (2010). Comparison of oppositional defiant disorder in children considering to parenting of mothers. Woman and Family Studies, 1 (4), 49-62. (Persian).
Castillo, R., Salguero, J., Fernández-Berrocal, P. & Balluerka, P. (2013).  Effects of an emotional intelligence intervention on aggression and empathy among adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 36(5), 883–892.
Entesar Foumany, GH. & Salehi, J. (2013). The Effects of Anger Management Skills Training on Aggression, Social Adjustment, and Mental Health of College Students, Journal of Educational and Management Studies, 3 (4), 266-270.
Faramarzi, S., Abedi, A. & Ghanbari, A. (2012). The Efficacy of mother's relationship model training on reduction syndromes of oppositional defiant disorder of their children, Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 34 (2), 90-96. (Persian).
Feindler, E. L. & Weisner, S. (2005). Youth anger management treatments for school violence) prevention. Unpublished manuscript.
Freiden J. (2005). Game: A Clinical Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Violence in Schools. Memphis, TN: University of Memphis.
Goldstein, N., Naomi E.S., Serico,  J., Riggs Romaine, C., Zelechoski, A., Kalbeitzer, K. & Lane, Ch. (2013). Development of the Juvenile Justice Anger Management Treatment for Girls. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(2), 171-188.
Granero, R., Louwaars, L. & Ezpeleta, L. (2015). Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables. Frontiers in Psychology, 4 (6), 1-33
Hommersen, P., Murray, C., Ohan, J. & Johnston, C. (2006). Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scale: Preliminary Evidence of Reliability and validity. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14 (2), 118-125.
Iwaniec, D. (2006). The emotionally abused and neglected child. Chi Chester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jackson, P., Eug_ene, M. & Tremblay, P. (2015). Improving empathy in the care of pain patients. AJOB Neuroscience, 6(3), 25–33.
Jolliffe, D. & Farrington, D. P. (2004). Empathy and offending: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Aggress Violent Behavior, 9 (3), 441-476.
Karimi, A. (1998). Normalization of adjustment inventory for high school students. Tehran: Sina psycho- logical institute press.
Kazdin, AN .E. (1997). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Kheirie, M., Shaeiri, M.R., Azad Fallah, P. & Rasulzade Tabatabaei, K. (2010). Effect of the triple P-positive parenting program on children with oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 3 (1), 53-58. (Persian).
Lawton, M. P. (2001). Emotion in later life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(4), 120-123.
Lochman, J. E. & Pardini, D. A. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapies. In M. Rutter , D. Bishop , D. Pine , S. Scott , J. Stevenson , E. Taylor & A. Thapar (Eds.), Rutter ’ s Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (5th ed., pp. 1026 – 1045). London: Blackwell.
Lochman, J. E. (2006). Translation of research into interventions. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30(1), 31 – 38.
Matthys, W. & Lochman, J, E. (2010). Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder in Childhood. Blackwell Publishing.
Moffi tt, T. E. & Scott, S. (2008). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence. In M. Rutter, D. V. M. Bishop, D. S. (Eds.), Rutter ’ s child and adolescent psychiatry (5th ed., pp. 543 – 564). Oxford: Blackwell.
Morelli, S. A., Rameson, L. T. & Lieberman,M. D. (2014). The neural components of empathy: Predicting daily prosocial behavior. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9 (1), 39–47.
Morelli, S., Lieberman, M. & Zaki, J. (2015). The Emerging Study of Positive Empathy. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9 (2), 57–68,
Navidi, A. (2009). The Efficacy of Anger Management Training on Adjustment Skills of High School Male Students in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 41 (4), 394-403. (Persian).
Nema, S. & Indu Bansal, P. (2015). Correlates of Home Health Social Emotional Adjustment among adolescents. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5 (2), 1-3.
O’Laughlin, E. M., Hackenburg, J. L. & Riccardi, M. M. (2010). Clinical usefulness of the Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scale (ODDRS). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18 (4), 247-255.
Pardini, D. & Fite, P. (2010). Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V. Journal American Academic Child Adolescence Psychiatry, 49 (11), 1134–1144.
Rieffe, C., Ketelaar, L. & Wiefferink, CH. (2010). Assessing empathy in young children: Construction and Validation of an Empathy Questionnaire (EmQue). Personality Individual Differences, 49 (5), 362-367.
Riess, H. (2015). The Impact of Clinical Empathy on Patients and Clinicians: Understanding Empathy's Side Effects. Empathy and Moral Behavior, 6, 50-53.
Sakofsky, M, J. (2009). The Impact of Empathy Skills Training on Middle School Children. The College at Brockport, Counselor Education Master's Theses, the College at Brockport: State University of New York.
Sanmartín, M. G., Carbonell, A. E. & Banos, C. P. (2011). Relaciones entre empatía, conducta prosocial, agresividad, autoeficacialy responsabilidad personality social de los escolares. Psicothema, 23 (1), 13–19.
Schamborg, S. (2015). A systematic review of the e_ectiveness of anger management interventions among adult male o_enders in secure settings. Archives of Forensic Psychology, 1 (2), 28-54.
Sigurdson, J, F., Wallander, J. & Sund, A. M. (2014). Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38 (10), 1607-1617.
Steki Azad, N., Amiri, Sh., & Molavi, H. (2012). A comparison of the social status of boy children with disruptive behavior disorder and normal children in the school stage. Social Psychological Researches, 1 (1), 1-15. (Persian).
Strayer, J. & Roberts, W. (2004). Empathy and observed anger and aggression in five year-olds. Social Development, 13 (1), 1-13.
Stringaris, A. & Goodman, R. (2009). Longitudinal outcome of youth oppositionality: irritable, headstrong, and hurtful behaviors have distinctive predictions. Journal American Academicy Child Adolescent Psychiatry. 48 (4), 404-412.
Stringaris, A., Zavos, H., Leibenluft, E., Maughan, B. & Eley, T. C. (2012). Adolescent irritability: phenotypic associations and genetic links with depressed mood. American Journal Psychiatry, 169 (1), 47-54.
Valizadeh, S., Davaji, R.B.O. & Nikamal, M. (2010). The effectiveness of anger management skills training on reduction of aggression in adolescents. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5 (5), 1195-1199.
Whelan, Y., Stringaris, A., Maughan, B. & Edward D. Barker, E. (2013).  Developmental Continuity of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Sub dimensions at Ages 8, 10, and 13 Years and Their Distinct Psychiatric Outcomes at Age 16 Years. Journal of the American academy of Ghild & Adolescent Psychiaty, 52 (9), 961-969.
Yeo, S.L., Ang, R. P., Loh, S., Fu, K. J. & Karre, J. K. (2011). The role of affective and cognitive empathy in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression of a Singaporean sample of boys. Journal of Psychology, 145 (4), 313-330.