The role of working memory in the process of transformation time perception in school-age children

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of University of Tabriz

2 Master of Science in Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology, University of Gillan

3 Associate Professor of University of Gillan


Various studies have shown that many factors influence the length of time perception. This study was aimed to study the changing in perceived time at 7 to 12 year-old children, and to determine the role of working memory on time perception. One hundred-twenty elementary students were selected from Rasht schools (first to sixth grade) through multilevel clustering sampling method. For data collectionpurpose, two tests of CANTAB (SWM) and time reproduction task were used. Data were analyzed by using ofdescriptive statistics, MANOVA and MANCOVA. Findings of the present study indicate that in both single and dual task reproduced time was significantly different in grade groups.In the other words, time perception improved with increasing age. Working memory indices including Strategies and Total errors were enteredas covariant variables in a MANCOVA. Nosignificant difference was found between long-time task and grade groups. This result indicates that working memory affects time perception in dual task with increasing age.


اختیاری، حامد؛ پرهیزگار، احسان؛ بهزادی، آرین و مکری، آذرخش (1382). ادراک زمان و روشهای ارزیابی آن: یک مطالعه مقدماتی برای آزمودنی فارسی زبان. فصلنامه تازه‌های علوم شناختی، (4)5، 49-36.
استرنبرگ، رابرت (2006). روانشناسی شناختی. ترجمه کمال خرازی، الهه حجازی. (1391). تهران: انتشارات سمت.
آیزنک، مایکل و کین، مارک (2006). روانشناسی شناختی. ترجمه اکبر رهنما، محمدرضا فریدی. (1389). تهران: انتشارات آییژ.
نظری، محمد علی؛ میرلو، محمد مهدی و اسدزاده، سمیه (1390). خطای ادراک زمان در پردازش واژه‌های فارسی دارای بار هیجانی. فصلنامه تازه‌های علوم شناختی، (4)13، 48-37 .
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nat RevNeurosci, 4(10), 829-839.
Block, R. A., Zakay, D., & Hancock, P. A. (1998). Human aging and duration judgements: a meta-analyticreview. Psychology and Aging, 13, 584–596.
Block, R. A., Zakay, D., & Hancock, P. A. (1999). Developmental changes in human duration judgements: a meta-analytic review. Developmental Review, 19, 183–211.
Block, R. A., Hancock, P.A. & Zakay, D. (2010). How cognitive load affects duration judgments: amata-anayticreview. Acta Psychologica, 134(3), 330–333.
Broadway, J. M., Engle, R. W. (2011)  Lapsed attention to elapsed time? Individual differences in working memory capacity and temporal reproduction. Journal of Acta Psychologica, 137, 115-126.
Brocki, K. C., K. D. Randall, et al. (2008). Working memory in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined type: Are deficits modality  specific and are they independent of impaired inhibitory control? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(7), 749 - 759.
Brown, S. W. (2006). Timing and executive function: Bidirectional interference between concurrent temporal production and randomization tasks. Memory & Cognition, 11, 1464–1471.
Coull, J.T., Vidal, F., Nazarian, B., & Macar, F. (2004). Functional anatomy of the attentional modulation of time estimation. Science, 303, 1506–1508.
Donders, J., Hunter, S. J. (2010). Principles and Practice of Life span Developmental Neuropsychology. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press New York.
Downes, J., Evenden, J., Morris, R., Owen, A., Robbins, T., Roberts, A., & Sahakian, B. (2011). CANTA Beclipse Test Administration Guide, 310-314.
Droit-Volet, S. (2010). Stop using time reproduction tasks in a comparative perspective without further analyses of the role of the motor response on the temporal performance: the case of children. The European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 22(1), 130–148.
Droit-Volet, S. Vatakis, A. Esposito, M. Giagkou, F. & Papdelis, G. (2011). Multidisciplinary Aspects of Time and Time Perception. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 151-173.
Droit-volet, S. (2012). Time perception in children: A neurodevelopmental approach.   Journal of neuropsychologia, 1-15.
Ekhtiari, H., Parhizgar, A., Behzadi, A., Mokarami, A. (2004). Time Perception and its assessment methods: A preliminary study of Persian-speaking subjects. Journal of Advances in Cognitive Science, 5(4), 36- 49.(Persian).
Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current    Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 19−23.
Eysenck, M., Kane, M. Cognitive Psychology. Rahnama, A., Faridi, M. Tehran, Ayij Press, 2011.
Epsy, K. A. (2005). Inhibitory Processes in Young Children and Individual Variationin Short-Term Memory. Dev Neuropsychol 28(2), 669-688.
Espinosa-Fernandez, L. , De la Torre Vacas, L., del Rosario Garcia-Viedman, M., Garcia-Gutierrez, A. & Torres Colmernero, C. J.(2004). Temporal performance in 4–8 year old children: the effect of chronometric information in task execution. Acta Psychologica, 117, 295–312.
Fry, A. F., Hale, S. (2000). Relationships among processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence in children. Biological Psychology 54, 1–34.
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative frame work. Psychological Bulletin 134(1), 31-60.
Guy, J. (2010). Age-Related Changes in Visual and Auditory Sustained Attention, Inhibition and Working Memory in Preschool-Aged Children. A thesis submitted to McGill University, In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Neuroscience.
Luciana, M., Nelson, C. A. (2002). Assessment of neuropsychological functioning through use of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery:      Performance in 4-12 year-old children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 22, 595–624.
Luciana, M. (2003). Practitioner review: Computerized assessment of neuropsychological function in children: Clinical and research applications of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 649-663.
Lui, M., Tannock, R. (2007). Working memory and inattentive behaviour in acommunity sample of children. Behavioral and Brain Functions 3(1), 12-23.
Nazari, M., Mirlou, M., Asadzadeh, S. (2012). Time Perception Error in Emotional Persian Words Processing. Journal of Advances in Cognitive Science, 13(4), 37- 48. (Persian).
Noulhiane, M., Mella, N., Samson, S., Ragot, R., & Pouthas, V. (2007). How emotional auditory stimuli modulate time perception. Emotion, 7(4), 697-704.
Robbins, T.W., James, M., Owen, A. M., Sahakian, B. J., Lawrence, A. D., McIness, L., & Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1998). A study of performance on tests from the CANTAB battery sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in a large sample of normal volunteers: Implications for theories of executive functioning and cognitive aging. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 474–490.
Rubia, K. (2006). The neural corrolates of timing functions. In J. Glicksohn & M. S. Myslobodsky (Eds.). Timing the future: The case for a time-based prospective Memory. River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing, 213-238.
Rubia, K., Halari , R., Christakou, A. & Taylor, E. (2009). Impulsiveness as a timing disturbance: neurocognitive abnormalities in attention-deficithy peractivity disorder during emporal processe sandnormalization with methylphenidate. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal SocietyB, 364, 1919–1931.
Sternberg, R. Kharazi, K., Hejazi, E. (2006). Cognitive Psychology. Tehran: Samt Press.  
Toplak, M. E., Rucklidge, J. J., Hetherington, R., John, S. C. F., & Tannock, R. (2003).Time perception deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid reading difficulties in child and adolescent samples. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(6), 888-903.
Woehrle, J. L., Magliano, J. P. (2011). Time flies faster if a person has a high working-memory capacity. Journal of ActaPsychologica 139, 314-319.
Ze´ lanti, P. & Droit-Volet,S. (2011). Cognitive abilities explaining age-related changes in time perception of short and long durations. Psycholog, 109(2), 143–157.